Instruments Under Construction

USA NIST Dr. Veronika Szalai Q-band EPR/ENDOR spectrometer


SpecMan4EPR controlled instruments

Israel Weizmann Institute of Science Prof. Daniella Goldfarb W-band EPR/ENDOR spectrometer; W-band DNP spectrometer
Germany Max-Planck Institute of Bioinorganic Chemistry Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Lubitz D-band cw EPR, ENDOR spectrometer; ENDOR/ELDOR upgrade for Bruker ESP380 and Elexsys 580 spectrometers
  J.W. Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt Prof. Dr. Thomas Prisner G-band pulsed EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
  Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Leipzig University Prof. Dr. Jürgen Haase Q-band cw/pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
  Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Stuttgart University Prof. Dr. Joris van Slageren Q-band pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
USA Northwestern University Prof. Brian Hoffman Q-band pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
  University of Chicago Prof. Howard J. Halpern Two 250MHz pulse EPR imagers; 250 MHz Rapid Scan imager; 720 MHz pulse EPR imager.
  Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory Prof. David M. Bartels X-band pulsed EPR spectrometer
  Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, MIT Prof. Robert G. Griffin 170 GHz pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
  Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Dr. Eric D. Walter W-band cw/pulse EPR spectrometer
  Northwestern University Prof. Michael R. Wasielewski Q-band pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
  Argonne National Laboratory Prof. Oleg Poluektov D-band cw/pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
  Department of Chemistry, University of California Davis Prof. R. David Britt W-band cw/pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
  Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Barbara Prof. Songi Han 7T (200 GHz EPR) DNP spectrometer
  Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth Prof. Harold M. Swartz L-band pulse EPR spectrometer
  IMMR center, University of West Virginia Prof. Mark Tseytlin 750 MHz Rapid Scan imager
Japan Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University Prof. Kazunobu Sato X-band pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer
  Hirosaki University Prof. Kouichi Nakagawa Retrofitting of JEOL X-band cw spectrometer with imaging capabilities


Decommissioned instruments

Switzerland Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Prof. Arthur Schweiger S-band pulse EPR spectrometer; X-band pulse EPR/ENDOR spectrometer



  Epel B, Gromov I, Stoll S, Schweiger A, Goldfarb D. 2005. Spectrometer manager: A versatile control software for pulse EPR spectrometers. Conc Magn Reson B 26B:36-45.



1. Astashkin AV, Enemark JH, Raitsimring A. 2006. 26.5-40 GHz K-a-band pulsed EPR spectrometer. Conc Magn Reson B 29B:125-36.

2. Epel B, Niklas J, Antonkine ML, Lubitz W. 2006. Absolute signs of hyperfine coupling constants as determined by pulse ENDOR of polarized radical pairs. Applied Magnetic Resonance 30:311-27.

3. Goldfarb D. 2006. High field ENDOR as a characterization tool for functional sites in microporous materials. Phys Chem Chem Phys 8:2325-43.

4. Gromov I, Forrer J, Schweiger A. 2006. Probehead operating at 35 GHz for continuous wave and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance applications. Rev Sci Instrum 77.

5. Kulik LV, Epel B, Lubitz W, Messinger J. 2007. Electronic structure of the Mn4OxCa cluster in the S-0 and S-2 states of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II based on pulse Mn-55-ENDOR and EPR Spectroscopy. Journal of the American Chemical Society 129:13421-35.

6. Reijerse E, Schmidt PP, Klihm G, Lubitz W. 2007. A CW and pulse EPR spectrometer operating at 122 and 244 GHz using a quasi-optical bridge and a cryogen-free 12 T superconducting magnet. Applied Magnetic Resonance 31:611-26.

7. Silakov A, Reijerse EJ, Albracht SPJ, Hatchikian EC, Lubitz W. 2007. The electronic structure of the H-cluster in the FeFe -hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: A Q-band Fe-57-ENDOR and HYSCORE study. Journal of the American Chemical Society 129:11447-58.

8. Epel B, Sundramoorthy SV, Mailer C, Halpern HJ. 2008. A versatile high speed 250-MHz pulse imager for biomedical applications. Conc Magn Reson B 33B:163-76.

9. Goldfarb D, Lipkin Y, Potapov A, et al. 2008. HYSCORE and DEER with an upgraded 95 GHz pulse EPR spectrometer. J Magn Reson 194:8-15.

10. Potapov A, Epel B, Goldfarb D. 2008. A triple resonance hyperfine sublevel correlation experiment for assignment of electron-nuclear double resonance lines. J Chem Phys 128.

11. Kaminker I, Potapov A, Feintuch A, Vega S, Goldfarb D. 2009. Population transfer for signal enhancement in pulsed EPR experiments on half integer high spin systems. Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:6799-806.

12. Silakov A, Wenk B, Reijerse E, Albracht SPJ, Lubitz W. 2009. Spin distribution of the H-cluster in the H-ox-CO state of the FeFe hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: HYSCORE and ENDOR study of N-14 and C-13 nuclear interactions. J Biol Inorg Chem 14:301-13.

13. Zipse H, Artin E, Wnuk S, et al. 2009. Structure of the Nucleotide Radical Formed during Reaction of CDP/TTP with the E441Q-alpha 2 beta 2 of E-coli Ribonucleotide Reductase. Journal of the American Chemical Society 131:200-11.

14. Gafurov M, Lyubenova S, Denysenkov V, et al. 2010. EPR Characterization of a Rigid Bis-TEMPO-Bis-Ketal for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. Applied Magnetic Resonance 37:505-14.

15. Kinney RA, Hetterscheid DGH, Hanna BS, Schrock RR, Hoffman BM. 2010. Formation of { HIPTN3N Mo(III)H}(-) by Heterolytic Cleavage of H-2 as Established by EPR and ENDOR Spectroscopy. Inorg Chem 49:704-13.

16. Niklas J, Gopta O, Epel B, Lubitz W, Antonkine ML. 2010. Investigation of the Stationary and Transient A (1) (center dot-) Radical in Trp -> Phe Mutants of Photosystem I. Applied Magnetic Resonance 38:187-203.

17. Su JH, Messinger J. 2010. Is Mn-Bound Substrate Water Protonated in the S (2) State of Photosystem II? Applied Magnetic Resonance 37:123-36.

18. Cox N, Ames W, Epel B, et al. 2011. Electronic Structure of a Weakly Antiferromagnetically Coupled (MnMnIII)-Mn-II Model Relevant to Manganese Proteins: A Combined EPR, Mn-55-ENDOR, and DFT Study. Inorg Chem 50:8238-51.

19. Cox N, Rapatskiy L, Su JH, et al. 2011. Effect of Ca2+/Sr2+ Substitution on the Electronic Structure of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II: A Combined Multifrequency EPR, Mn-55-ENDOR, and DFT Study of the S-2 State. Journal of the American Chemical Society 133:3635-48.

20. Doan PE. 2011. Combining steady-state and dynamic methods for determining absolute signs of hyperfine interactions: Pulsed ENDOR Saturation and Recovery (PESTRE). J Magn Reson 208:76-86.

21. Doan PE, Telser J, Barney BM, et al. 2011. Fe-57 ENDOR Spectroscopy and 'Electron Inventory' Analysis of the Nitrogenase E-4 Intermediate Suggest the Metal-Ion Core of FeMo-Cofactor Cycles Through Only One Redox Couple. Journal of the American Chemical Society 133:17329-40.

22. Epel B, Sundramoorthy SV, Barth ED, Mailer C, Halpern HJ. 2011. Comparison of 250 MHz electron spin echo and continuous wave oxygen EPR imaging methods for in vivo applications. Medical Physics 38:2045-52.

23. Feintuch A, Shimon D, Hovav Y, et al. 2011. A Dynamic Nuclear Polarization spectrometer at 95 GHz/144 MHz with EPR and NMR excitation and detection capabilities. J Magn Reson 209:136-41.

24. Kaminker I, Florent M, Epel B, Goldfarb D. 2011. Simultaneous acquisition of pulse EPR orientation selective spectra. J Magn Reson 208:95-102.

25. Silakov A, Reijerse EJ, Lubitz W. 2011. Unraveling the Electronic Properties of the Photoinduced States of the H-Cluster in the FeFe Hydrogenase from D. desulfuricans. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry:1056-66.

26. Su JH, Cox N, Ames W, et al. 2011. The electronic structures of the S-2 states of the oxygen-evolving complexes of photosystem II in plants and cyanobacteria in the presence and absence of methanol. Bba-Bioenergetics 1807:829-40.

27. Lohmiller T, Cox N, Su JH, Messinger J, Lubitz W. 2012. The Basic Properties of the Electronic Structure of the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosystem II Are Not Perturbed by Ca2+ Removal. J Biol Chem 287:24721-33.

28. Potapov A, Lancaster KM, Richards JH, Gray HB, Goldfarb D. 2012. Spin Delocalization Over Type Zero Copper. Inorg Chem 51:4066-75.

29. Shimon D, Hovav Y, Feintuch A, Goldfarb D, Vega S. 2012. Dynamic nuclear polarization in the solid state: a transition between the cross effect and the solid effect. Phys Chem Chem Phys 14:5729-43.

30. Smith AA, Corzilius B, Bryant JA, et al. 2012. A 140 GHz pulsed EPR/212 MHz NMR spectrometer for DNP studies. J Magn Reson 223:170-9.

31. Zielazinski EL, Cutsail GE, Hoffman BM, Stemmler TL, Rosenzweig AC. 2012. Characterization of a Cobalt-Specific P-1B-ATPase. Biochemistry-Us 51:7891-900.

32. Mentink-Vigier F, Collauto A, Feintuch A, Kaminker I, Le VT, Goldfarb D. 2013. Increasing sensitivity of pulse EPR experiments using echo train detection schemes. J Magn Reson 236:117-25.

33. Ueda A, Suzuki S, Yoshida K, et al. 2013. Hexamethoxyphenalenyl as a Possible Quantum Spin Simulator: An Electronically Stabilized Neutral pi Radical with Novel Quantum Coherence Owing to Extremely High Nuclear Spin Degeneracy. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 52:4795-9.

34. Culpepper MA, Cutsail GE, Gunderson WA, Hoffman BM, Rosenzweig AC. 2014. Identification of the Valence and Coordination Environment of the Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Copper Centers by Advanced EPR Characterization. Journal of the American Chemical Society 136:11767-75.

35. Cutsail GE, Stein BW, Subedi D, Smith JM, Kirk ML, Hoffman BM. 2014. EPR, ENDOR, and Electronic Structure Studies of the Jahn-Teller Distortion in an Fe-V Nitride. Journal of the American Chemical Society 136:12323-36.

36. Epel B, Bowman MK, Mailer C, Halpern HJ. 2014. Absolute Oxygen R-1e Imaging In Vivo with Pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. Magnet Reson Med 72:362-8.

37. Gunderson WA, Suess DLM, Fong H, et al. 2014. Free H-2 Rotation vs Jahn Teller Constraints in the Nonclassical Trigonal (TPB)Co-H-2 Complex. Journal of the American Chemical Society 136:14998-5009.

38. Hovav Y, Feintuch A, Vega S, Goldfarb D. 2014. Dynamic nuclear polarization using frequency modulation at 3.34 T. J Magn Reson 238:94-105.

39. Epel B, Halpern HJ. 2015. Comparison of pulse sequences for R-1-based electron paramagnetic resonance oxygen imaging. J Magn Reson 254:56-61.

40. Hovav Y, Kaminker I, Shimon D, Feintuch A, Goldfarb D, Vega S. 2015. The electron depolarization during dynamic nuclear polarization: measurements and simulations. Phys Chem Chem Phys 17:226-44.

41. Hovav Y, Shimon D, Kaminker I, Feintuch A, Goldfarb D, Vega S. 2015. Effects of the electron polarization on dynamic nuclear polarization in solids. Phys Chem Chem Phys 17:6053-65.

42. Niklas J, Westwood M, Mardis KL, et al. 2015. X-ray Crystallographic, Multifrequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, and Density Functional Theory Characterization of the Ni((P2N2tBu)-N-Cy)(2)(n+)) Hydrogen Oxidation Catalyst in the Ni(I) Oxidation State. Inorg Chem 54:6226-34.

43. Rapatskiy L, Ames WM, Perez-Navarro M, et al. 2015. Characterization of Oxygen Bridged Manganese Model Complexes Using Multifrequency O-17-Hyperfine EPR Spectroscopies and Density Functional Theory. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 119:13904-21.

44. Christodoulou AG, Redler G, Clifford B, Liang ZP, Halpern HJ, Epel B. 2016. Fast dynamic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging using low-rank tensors. J Magn Reson 270:176-82.

45. Keller K, Zalibera M, Qi M, et al. 2016. EPR characterization of Mn(II) complexes for distance determination with pulsed dipolar spectroscopy. Phys Chem Chem Phys 18:25120-35.

46. Oyala PH, Ravichandran KR, Funk MA, et al. 2016. Biophysical Characterization of Fluorotyrosine Probes Site-Specifically Incorporated into Enzymes: E. coli Ribonucleotide Reductase As an Example. Journal of the American Chemical Society 138:7951-64.

47. Siaw TA, Leavesley A, Lund A, Kaminker I, Han S. 2016. A versatile and modular quasi optics-based 200 GHz dual dynamic nuclear polarization and electron paramagnetic resonance instrument. J Magn Reson 264:131-53.